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Yet many facts about Muslims are not well known in some of these places, and most Americans – who live in a country with a relatively small Muslim population – say they know little or nothing about Islam.Here are answers to some key questions about Muslims, compiled from several Pew Research Center reports published in recent years: How many Muslims are there? There were 1.6 billion Muslims in the world as of 2010 – roughly 23% of the global population – according to a Pew Research Center estimate.While it does not change the global population, migration is helping to increase the Muslim population in some regions, including North America and Europe. Like any religious group, the religious beliefs and practices of Muslims vary depending on many factors, including where in the world they live.But Muslims around the world are almost universally united by a belief in one God and the Prophet Muhammad, and the practice of certain religious rituals, such as fasting during Ramadan, is widespread. For instance, a Pew Research Center survey of Muslims in 39 countries asked Muslims whether they want sharia law, a legal code based on the Quran and other Islamic scripture, to be the official law of the land in their country. Nearly all Muslims in Afghanistan (99%) and most in Iraq (91%) and Pakistan (84%) support sharia law as official law.

A majority of the Muslims globally (62%) live in the Asia-Pacific region, including large populations in Indonesia, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Iran and Turkey. A 2011 survey of Muslim Americans, which was conducted in English as well as Arabic, Farsi and Urdu, estimated that there were 1.8 million Muslim adults (and 2.75 million Muslims of all ages) in the country. For one, Muslims have more children than members of other religious groups.But in some other countries, especially in Eastern Europe and Central Asia – including Turkey (12%), Kazakhstan (10%) and Azerbaijan (8%) – relatively few favor the implementation of sharia law. Recent surveys show that most people in several countries with significant Muslim populations have an unfavorable view of ISIS, including virtually all respondents in Lebanon and 94% in Jordan.Indonesia is currently the country with the world’s single largest Muslim population, but Pew Research Center projects that India will have that distinction by the year 2050 (while remaining a majority Hindu country), with more than 300 million Muslims. Pew Research Center’s 2014 Religious Landscape Study (conducted in English and Spanish) found that 0.9% of U. Around the world, each Muslim woman has an average of 3.1 children, compared with 2.3 for all other groups combined.The Muslim population in Europe also is growing; we project 10% of all Europeans will be Muslims by 2050. According to our best estimate, Muslims make up just less than 1% of the U. Muslims are also the youngest (median age of 23 years old in 2010) of all major religious groups, seven years younger than the median age of non-Muslims.But while Islam is currently the world’s second-largest religion (after Christianity), it is the fastest-growing major religion.

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Indeed, if current demographic trends continue, the number of Muslims is expected to exceed the number of Christians by the end of this century. Our demographic projections estimate that Muslims will make up 2.1% of the U. population by the year 2050, surpassing people who identify as Jewish on the basis of religion as the second-largest faith group in the country (not including people who say they have no religion).